In this Issue:
Greetings during this Season of Advent!
We find ourselves in a time of waiting. Indeed, so many of us have had our lives on hold for months on end. We have been waiting for a vaccine, hoping that Moderna will deliver. We feel stuck.
It is precisely in times like these that the Church summons us to look up, raising our line of vision so that we can see beyond the anxieties and losses that weigh down upon us. As a people of faith, we place our ultimate hope, not in a vaccine, but in the coming of the Christ. It is not Moderna but the Madonna that who will raise up that hope for us.
And we do need hope – not hope for this or that solution to the many problems that beset us. Because there will always be more. We seek the hope that Jesus brings into the world, an ultimate hope. We seek to hear the Word of God spoken to us in the depths of our heart and in the Incarnation, because that Word is nothing less than life itself. We desire to know that our lives are ultimately meaningful, despite the loss, despite the uncertainty, despite the anxieties. That hope is vindicated because in Jesus of Nazareth, God enters our human estate.
Though we have seen divisions around us, pandemic, and loss, these have always been part of the human condition. As fellow Christians both here in the U.S. and in China, we face these things with an ultimate hope. In that spirit of hope, let us buoy up one another.
Catholics@Work, a Group that Emphasizes Living the Values of the Faith, Holds Online Event Featuring Fr. Michael
Earlier this year Fr. Michael was slated to give a presentation entitled “China and the Church at the Crossroads” to a Bay Area Catholic organization, Catholics@Work. Catholics at Work was founded to support lay Catholics so they could put into action the values of the Faith.
Because of the restrictions imposed by the pandemic, the event was postponed, then finally moved online. Fr. Michael even celebrated Mass online beforehand, inviting the congregation to participate in a prayer of spiritual communion at the time of the Eucharist.
When it comes to the Church in China, many Catholics only hear of “negative news” – of tension and persecution. They are not familiar with the complex history of the missionary effort to share the Faith with the people of China, an effort which enjoyed both moments of warm acceptance and moments of conflict. Just as that history is complex, likewise the circumstances of the Church in China today are cannot be painted in a single brushstroke.
Indeed, today debate rages within the Church about how to engage Chinese authorities, with some promoting dialogue and others dismissing the Chinese Communist Party as unreliable. In this light, Fr. Michael then spoke about the efforts of Pope Francis to seek reconciliation on the basis of mutual respect and good will. Those efforts have been dismissed by many Catholics as naïve, especially given the increasing restrictions that Chinese authorities have placed on ordinary civil liberties over the last decade.
Following the presentation, the audience had the opportunity to pose questions and to share their own insights and experience.
"Confucian & Christian Dialogue in the China Puzzle"
Presented by Diane Obenchain
On November 22, the China Academic Consortium (co-sponsored with USCCA and ChinaSource) presented an online lecture titled "The Role of Confucian and Christian Dialogue in the China Puzzle."
The evening began with the sponsoring groups introducing the Speaker Series as an ongoing collaboration in support of Christianity in China.
The speaker, Dr. Obenchain, is the director of the China Initiative and a Senior Professor of Religion at Fuller Seminary.
Dr. Obenchain began her presentation with an overview of Confucian history. She then described in more detail the Confucian view of the family. She examined traditional Chinese family relations and the effects Confucian philosophy has had on its moral transformation.
She then went on to analyze the Christian moral transformation of family relations in the West. She underscored the shared beliefs of two traditions, citing the family was the core of both Chinese and Western civilizations. She also described the ways Confucianism built upon, and went beyond, family relations.
Dr. Obenchain noted how the differences of the two traditions appeared small compared to the commonalities. She also stated that a shared vision is needed in order to fully understand the Chinese family. The family is the building block of both societies, as well as an opportunity for dialogue between two systems of belief.
In summary, Dr. Obenchain emphasized how understanding the Confucian and Christian influence on the Chinese family can help to strengthen dialogue and unity in support of Christianity in China.
The evening ended with the group breaking into delightful table discussions with the three sponsors to further explore the topic.
At 40 the Holy Spirit Study Centre Continues to Build Bridges
by Fr. Michael Agliardo
Forty years ago, on October 1, the same day the People’s Republic of China marks its inauguration, four priests and friends in the Lord launched a new initiative, the Holy Spirit Study Centre. Those men, (then) Fr. John Tong, Fr. Angelo Lazzarotto, PIME, Fr. Elmer Wurth, MM, and Fr. Peter Barry, MM, were responding to the appeal of the late Cardinal John Baptist Wu, then the Bishop of Hong Kong.
The Holy Spirit Study Centre was founded to be a “research institute whose primary practical task [is] to gather, store and analyze pertinent data about China that will serve to broaden understanding of the Mainland’s rapidly changing situation, and to effect appropriate Christian responses” (HSSC website).
Located on the grounds of the Holy Spirit Seminary of the Diocese of Hong Kong, it is an expression of the pastoral concern of the Diocese for China and the Church in China. As Fr. Barry writes, Cardinal Wu, instructed us: “Build a bridge between our brothers and sisters inside and outside of China, promoting the mission of reconciliation through the gospel.”
Among the many works of the Holy Spirit Study Centre, concerned Catholics from around the world may be most familiar with Tripod 鼎, its well-regarded bilingual (Chinese and English) journal. This journal began as a vehicle for dialogue with Chinese intellectuals. It continues to serve as a unique locus for reflection on the pastoral needs and challenges facing the Chinese Church in the modern world.
In addition, the HSSC publishes a monthly one-page feature called “China Bridge” in the Sunday Examiner, the English-language weekly of the Hong Kong Diocese. Since March 1991, China Bridge has dealt with various topics of interest related to China’s past and present.
Both these publications can be accessed from the website of the Centre. Hardcopy editions of Tripod 鼎 can also be ordered via the Centre’s website.
In addition to these helpful publications, over the years the Holy Spirit Study Centre has maintained fraternal ties with official and unregistered church leaders in China, facilitated visits to China by non-Chinese, provided educational and other resources for the Church, and served as a venue for conferences and gatherings to serve the faith.
When the US-China Catholic Association held its 2017 and 2018 study tours, the staff of the HSSC provided invaluable assistance during our stop in Hong Kong. They arranged for us to meet members of the local Church to better understand its dynamic role in Hong Kong society. (Now) Cardinal Tong was also gracious enough to meet with us and join us for a meal.
We are grateful for the tremendous service that the HSSC has provided the Church in China and the universal Church over the years. They have been joined by many committed lay people and religious from around the world: members of the Paris Foreign Missions Society, the Maryknoll Fathers and the Maryknoll Sisters (MM), the Congregation of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, the Pontifical Institute for Foreign Missions, the Sisters of the Precious Blood, the Scarboro Fathers, the Dominicans, and the Jesuits.
Founded as a bridge to bring people together, HSSC has remained faithful to its mission these past four decades. We pray that God watch over its staff and their mission in the decades to come. Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam!
Dear Friends in Christ,
Peace be with you as we begin our Advent journey.
If 2020 has taught us anything, it is that we rely on God and on one another.
I learned that from the support I have been given by our Board members. They have lent their time and wisdom unsparingly. I learned that from our staff here at the China Association. Their dedication and creativity has slowly transformed old programs and inspired new ones. And I learned that from our many supporters, who have written and volunteered and participated in our programs.
Yes! I will stand by
For all this, I also give thanks to God, who is at work in our midst and in our hearts.
Indeed, while the world ground to a halt in 2020, here at the USCCA we were able to redouble our efforts in service to our mission. Throughout this epidemic, we have kept in touch with our partners and colleagues in China. And while some programs were put on hold, we launched new initiatives. Now we are looking forward to 2021 as our best year ever. You will see all the good work we have been doing this year and a snapshot of what next year holds in store.
If you would like to support the the USCCA at this time, know that every contribution – whether $10 or $1000 – is deeply appreciated. Know that every contribution is multiplied by the talent and hard work of our staff and volunteers. Thank you again for your consideration and generosity.
Let us pray that God increase the faith and fraternity of all Christians on both sides of the
In Our Lord,
The China Association offers a comprehensive list of resources concerning Chinese theology and the Church in China. Some will facilitate exploration of the relationship between Christianity and Chinese culture, drawing on a range of disciplines, including history, philosophy, theology, and sociology. Others provide news and essays pertaining to contemporary developments that affect the life of the Chinese Church.
Currently, this list includes mainly resources in English, or bilingual resources in Chinese and English. We have plans to expand this list in the coming months to include other languages.
Our list includes reputable publications such as:
Tripod by Holy Spirit Study Centre of Hong Kong
Union of Catholic Asian News
Center on Religion and Chinese Society
USCCA Friends Across the Pacific: Solidarity in Challenging Times
In the shadow of the pandemic and political turbulence, we will be visiting with Catholics who work in parishes, retreat centers, youth ministry, seminaries, social service centers, and universities and other settings. This tour lends a lively experience of the Church Universal.
As we wander through Beijing, Tainjin, Shanghai, Xi'an, we will also experience China's modern metropolises and ancient historical sites.
All are welcome. And, in particular, this tour had in mind representatives of U.S. Catholic organizations who want to meet and explore possibilities for collaboration with their counterparts in China. It will provide an overview of the contemporary circumstances of China and the Catholic community.
China Study Tours 2021
From the Heartland to the Borderlands: Faith in Chinese Context
China is a land of surpassing cultural and historical breadth. Ultra-modern cities to an ancient heartland. Beijing to the villages in Yunnan. It is an incredible cultural mix!
In these diverse settings, study tour participants will hear firsthand from local Catholics and witness the role that the faith plays in their communities.
All are welcome. And this study tour was designed with graduate students and other members of the academic community in mind. Educational subsidies may be available.
Up for an adventure of a very unique kind? Take a look at our China Study Tours for 2021.
Three choices for three unique situations.
China Ever Ancient, Ever Young: The Human Quest
Ever wonder about young China? Who are the youth and young adults of China? Come meet them in the modern cities at the young scenes – Catholic, Protestant, traditional, secular. Meet the younger brothers and sisters in the faith and experience how they are living their lives now in a quite different China from previous generations. Learn how the Church is growing and adapting to meet the challenges and opportunities of the ever-changing Chinese landscape? Chinese youth are not the Church of tomorrow. They are the young Church of today.
Those who work with Chinese international students at U.S. high schools or universities would especially benefit from this tour. All are welcome.
impressive, offering valuable insight rooted in many years of direct experience with Chinese international students, both in the United States and in China.
Workshop attendance exceeded expectations with 22 high schools and 18 universities represented. Attendees had varying roles and professions, such as religious study teachers, campus ministers, directors of international education programs, and directors of recruitment. The connections made and feedback received from the participants have given CEI a strong foundation to build upon.
If you are interested in viewing the workshops, we have provided recordings of the presentations, as well as a link to the resource pages on our website. Here are the links for the workshops for each respective level:
With the CEI fall workshop series having come to an end, we are now looking ahead with enthusiasm as we begin planning and preparations for Spring 2021. CEI is planning a spring workshop series, once again directed at both the university and high school levels and will explore themes related to effective engaging Chinese international students in campus ministry programs and religious studies courses. This workshop series will also lead us into our 2021 International Conference “China, Christianity, and the Dialogue of Civilizations”, where we will make available the resources that came out of this process; host several capstone workshops; and most importantly, provide an opportunity for those involved in this effort to network.
For more information on the Campus Engagement Initiative (CEI), please contact:
Cecilia Flores, Campus Engagement Coordinator
Campus Engagement Initiative Update
The Fall 2020 season has been a busy and exciting time in the work of The US-China Catholic Association's Campus Engagement Initiative (CEI). As a recently launched initiative, our work this fall focused on building our network while also identifying needs of professionals from Catholic institutions who work with Chinese international students, both at the high school and university level.
At the end of September and beginning of October, CEI distributed surveys to Catholic universities and high schools to solicit feedback on several areas to better understand the current needs of both the students and their host institutions. The results CEI received were informative, and CEI continues to distribute the surveys and solicit responses in order to better inform our strategies moving into 2021. If you or someone you know works at a high school or university that hosts Chinese international students, this feedback continues to be of great value to us. There are versions of the survey for:
counselors, student affairs personnel, recruiters and admissions officers
those who teach theology and religious studies
If you would like to share links to these surveys with others, they are:
www.uscatholicchina.org/workshops-hs-survey for high school personnel
www.uscatholicchina.org/workshops-univ-survey for university personnel
In the fall, CEI launched its Workshops Series, designed specifically for university and high school academics and professionals. The workshops programs addressed the background and concerns of Chinese international students, and the recruiting challenges schools face. The panelists who presented at each workshop were truly
Ian Johnson – New York Times Pulitzer-prize winning journalist
Lu Nan (吕楠) - Unrivaled internationally acclaimed China photographer
Rachel Zhu (朱晓红) - Associate professor and a founding member of the Religious Studies Department at Fudan University, Shanghai
Chiaretto Yan (甄健湘)- Chiaretto holds a doctorate in Missiology from the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome.
China, Christianity, and the
Dialogue of Civilizations
With the development of three vaccines it’s looking better and better for an in-person conference. Keynotes are lined up and the Saturday and Sunday sessions are falling into place. This is going to be a great event!
August 6-8, 2021 are the dates to mark in your calendar right now!
Here are some of the areas the USCCA is exploring:
Bridges between China and the West
The Sino-Vatican accord in historical and comparative perspective
Sinicization of religion: Meaning and application
Urbanization and Its Far-Reaching Implications
The Coronavirus, the Global Community, and the Church
Young People in Contemporary China
Women and Faith Communities in China Today
Civic Controversy in Hong Kong and Christian Community
Not to mention the incredible camaraderie from being around people of like mind.
In addition there will be the usual latest books on display, good food, the magnificent Ricci award banquet honoring Brent Fulton and Joann Pittman of ChinaSource all in the beautiful San Francisco Bay Area
We look forward to seeing you, if at all possible, face to face – not through a computer screen.
"The Vessel Overturned:
Current Views on Hong Kong Christian Civic Life"
In Hong Kong beginning in March 2019, yet another movement gained momentum, this time to protest a bill that would allow extradition of suspects to jurisdictions with which Hong Kong did not have an extradition agreement, including Mainland China. The U.S. media portrayed this unrest from an angle that lionized young people on a tiny island enclave struggling against an overbearing Goliath. However, on the ground, the perspectives were more nuanced. Within the Christian community, opinions varied regarding how far to take the protests, and how much support churches should lend. The divisions left a lasting mark.
Lida V. Nedilsky, Ph.D.
Professor of Sociology, North Park University, Chicago
Academic Advisory Board, Holy Spirit Study Centre, Hong Kong
Thursday, February 25th, 5:00 PM PST - 7:00 PM CST - 9:00 PM ET
This event is part of an ongoing collaboration sponsored by the USCCA, ChinaSource, and the China Academic Consortium.
Lida V. Nedilsky is a Professor of Sociology at North Park University. Her research interests focus on China, particularly how religious people in Hong Kong get engaged in political issues. Lida is the author of Converts to Civil Society: Christianity and Political Culture in Contemporary Hong Kong (Baylor 2014) and contributor to Shun-hing Chan and Jonathan W. Johnson's Citizens of Two Kingdoms: Civil Society and Christian Religion in Greater China (Brill 2021). Lida also serves on the Academic Review Board of the Holy Spirit Study Centre in Hong Kong.
Sociologist Lida Nedilsky, who has followed the involvement of Catholics and Protestants in Hong Kong’s civic life of throughout her career, will step back to lend insightful perspective regarding the contributions of Hong Kong Christians to the territory’s civic culture, the impact this involvement has had on the churches, and the unfolding implications of the current crackdown pursued by Beijing.
New Interview Series with China Christianity Scholars
by Anthony Clark, Ph.D.
Dr. Anthony E. Clark is professor of late-imperial Chinese history and director of the Asian Studies Program at Whitworth University. His publications include Heaven in Conflict: Franciscans and the Boxer Uprising in Shanxi (2015) and China’s Christianity: From Missionary to Indigenous Church (edited volume, 2017). His scholarship has centered on Sino-Christian cultural exchange in late-imperial China, including examination of the place of Catholic martyrs. He received his doctorate in classical sinology under Dr. Stephen Durrant, in the lineage of Fr. Teilhard de Chardin, SJ, Fr. Father Jozef Mullie, CICM, Dr. Peter Boodberg, and Fr. Paul Serruys, CICM. His is a tradition of comparative research into China’s long intellectual and religious exchange with the West. Dr. Clark is also a board member of the China Association.
A recent collaboration between the China Christianity Studies Group (CCSG), an affiliate society of the Association for Asian Studies (AAS), and Whitworth University has sponsored and produced a series of interviews with several of the world’s most significant scholars of Christianity in China. This series of twenty-four interviews is entitled, “Christianity in China: Recollections on the Field by Prominent Scholars,” captures the personal and intellectual interests of important scholars in the field, representing areas such as social studies, aesthetic studies, history, theology, and comparative philosophy.
Recorded using Zoom, each interview asked such questions as what attracted each scholar to the field, what research discoveries have transformed her or his understanding of the topic, what are her or his hopes for the future of the field, and finally, each scholar was asked to recall a memory of another scholar who has contributed to our understanding of China Christianity Studies.
Intended to preserve for posterity the scholarly lives and interests of these researchers, each scholar was asked the same questions, and the answers represent a rich diversity of experiences and views. The interviews were conducted during the months of June and July, 2020, and while the technology of online interviews is accompanied by occasional challenges, the distinct advantage is that these recorded interviews connected scholars residing in locations across the globe such as England, China, Australia, Hong Kong, Canada, and the US. The final interview includes reflections on the series by the interviewer, Dr. Anthony Clark.
List of Scholars in Order of Appearance:
Dr. Wu Xiaoxin
Fr. Rob Carbonneau, CP, PhD
Dr. Chlöe Starr
Dr. Joseph W. Ho
Dr. Joseph Tse-Hei Lee
Dr. Jean-Paul Wiest
Dr. Theodore Foss
Dr. Richard Madsen
Fr. Paul Mariani, SJ, PhD
Dr. Robert Entenmann
Dr. Paul Rule
Dr. Cindy Yik-yi Chu
Dr. Eugenio Menegon
Dr. Li Ji
Dr. Daryl Ireland
Dr. Melissa Wei-Tsing Inouye
Dr. Claudia von Collani
Dr. Anthony Clark (by Fr. Rob Carbonneau)
Dr. David Mungello
Dr. Kathleen Lodwick
Dr. Ryan Dunch
Fr. Nicolas Standaert, SJ, PhD
Dr. Anthony Clark – Recollections (Fr. Rob Carbonneau)
Beginning September 7, the interviews began being released sequentially on the Whitworth University Library YouTube channel, and information about the series can be directed to either the director of the CCSG, Dr, Joseph W. Ho or the director of Whitworth Library, Dr. Amanda C. R. Clark.
VOICES FROM THE CHURCH IN CHINA
The Unity of the Chinese Catholic Church
These three Chinese Catholic Churches from the underground and official communities were united in the Chinese Catholic Church: Shizhuang parish, Gaobeidian parish and Zhuozhou parish, in the Baoding Diocese, Hebei Province
图表 1Bishop An concelebrated mass with Father Yangyicun and Fatherv Jiang, yanli
Since China was reformed and opened up, the number of Catholics in Shizhuang Village has reached more than 1,200. Although the Church developed, under complicated historical circumstances in which the Shizhuang villages were divided into three communities. Although the faithful could practice their faith, they felt the painful division inside the Church, the parish in the Shizhuang Village had been split for forty years.
Pope John Paul II, Pope Benedict XVI, the current Pope Francis have always been concerned about Chinese Catholics. Finally, on September 22, 2018, China and Vatican signed a temporary agreement, this is a new opening for the Chinese Catholic Church.
图表 2Bishop An welcomes both communities
On March 3, 2019, at 8:20 pm, Father, Yang Yicun led the faithful with a band to meet Father Jiang Yanli (from the underground community) with his faithful and his band in the crossroads of the Shizhuang Village. Then they went together to the newly built temporary open air prayer hall in the village, At the gate of the prayer hall, Bishop An Shuxin welcomed Father Yang yicun and Father Jiang Yanli. They shook hands and exchanged greetings. Bishop An, Father Yang and Father Jiang concelebrated mass in the temporary hall.
During the homily, the Bishop An said: “We have done God’s favour today. After years of division, the love of God has brought us together. This is the result of the efforts of two priests and their assistants. The two priests also spoke separately:
Father Yang Yicun said: “The will of God is coming, people can’t stop it. For many years, it has been impossible to unite, it is impossible in the eyes of people, but for God, everything is possible. We follow the hierarchy of the Church therefore, we need to obey the Papa Francis’ message. We have to be in communion and in the future work together for the faithful even for the non catholics in our village.”
Father Jiang also said: "It is not a question of who we belong to, nor who wins, nor who loses, but according to the message of the Pope, we all belong to Christ and return to God. Faith requires us to obey the Pope. To bear witness to faith, we must be modest, the Holy Spirit of God is here, and we have done it!”
Father Yang Yicun mentioned : “The parish Gaobeidian in Baoding Diocese, Hebei Province of 120 faithful has been divided for many years. On September 22, 2018, the prayer hall of the parish was renovated, the same day as the signing of the agreement. It is a very significant and memorable day for the Gaobeidian parish . On December 25th, the parish community (underground and official ) were in communion.”
He also said : “In the parish of Zhuozhou in the Baoding Diocese, Hebei Province, there were more than 200 catholics when Father Yang Yicun went to Zhuozhou parish on Christmas 2013. There were only 9 Catholics in the official community, 100 Catholics in the underground community for 20 years. After 5 years of his evangelization ministry in Zhuozhou, more than 50 people have been baptized into the. They are all united, as a small community.
The two congregations of sisters in the Baoding Diocese, the Sisters of the Immaculate Conception of the Heart of Mary and the Little Sisters of Saint Teresa of L’Enfant Jesus are also united. More than 500 faithful attended the mass. The officials of the Shizhuang Village also came to congratulate the unity of the parish.
There was a meeting after the mass. They discussed the development of the three parishes and how to solve the urgent problems of the future.
Citizens of Two Kingdoms:
Civil Society and Christian Religion in Greater China (Leiden: Brill, 2021)
Editors: Shun-hing Chan and Jonathan W. Johnson
these distinct polities worship Christ, serve society, and seek justice? And how do not only governments but churches respond to such expressions of faith? It is clear from the start of this edited volume how cohesive and sensible is the collection. Together the chapters help the reader appreciate the dynamism of this historical moment. Christians and their churches muster various responses to Xi Jinping’s totalitarianism: at times defining, pressing, rallying, defending, enabling, requiring and avoiding. There is no one Church experienced by believers living in Greater China. There is no predictable response to Xi’s totalitarian impulse. Instead, as Richard Madsen reminds us in his chapter, there are responses generated by Christianities, civil societies as well as pathologies rooted in localized and particular possibilities.
Although their perspectives vary, the authors whose twelve essays constitute Citizens of Two Kingdoms share in common a care in handling the details –whether it be from archival, discursive, ethnographic, quantitative, or theoretical analysis. Take, for example, Fredrik Fällman’s chapter. Here we get an investigation of the catch phrase “reducing the burden” (jianqing fudan 减轻负担) employed by the party-state as religious propaganda for tapping Christian charity while at the same time severing the concept of inspired worship and evangelization from society’s association with Christian religion. The result is a new opiate of the masses, a useful opium Fällman tells us, dealt by the CCP itself.
Compare Fällman’s work to any of the chapters on Hong Kong, and you apprehend immediately the significance of localized and particular possibilities. Hong Kong Catholics, Mary Mee-Yin Yuen writes, have spent the last few decades stretching their notion of faithful action to embrace advocacy alongside workers, migrants, and women. Hong Kong Protestants, as recounted by Shun-hing Chan, have also been busy: paving the way beyond the sustained protests of Occupy Central with Peace and Love for the protracted Hong Kong protests of 2019 that began with opposition to an extradition bill but soon turned once again to the issue of universal suffrage as promised in the Basic Law. Yet with the arrests of prodemocracy politicians, journalists, teachers, youth and religious faithful, Xi Jinping’s reach is felt today in Hong Kong, too.
By drawing ourselves closer to current Chinese Christian realities, co-editor Shun-hing Chan believes, we the readers and discussants of Citizens of Two Kingdoms can join civil society in marking a threshold of hope for Greater China.
Reviewed by Lida V. Nedilsky, Ph.D.
All eyes are on China. For those of us whose gaze has never wavered, China in the era of Xi Jinping demands our constant attention. With economic boom and environmental degradation, religious effervescence and ethnic minority repression, public protest and political consolidation, the second decade of the twenty-first century is a time of reckoning.
The authors of Citizens of Two Kingdoms: Civil Society and Christian Religion in Greater China (Leiden: Brill, 2021) focus that gaze by highlighting and updating classic concerns of those with a stake in Christianity’s future not only in mainland China but also Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau. As the number of Christians increases, as the type of civil society action diversifies, as the level of repression and consolidation intensifies, how do Christians across